Frequently Asked Questions

Abiotic Factors

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Any of several closely related green pigments found in cyanobacteria and the chloroplasts of algae and plants. Chlorophyll is essential in photosynthesis, allowing plants to absorb energy from light. Chlorophyll absorbs light most strongly in the blue portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, followed by the red portion. Conversely, it is a poor absorber of green and near-green portions of the spectrum, which it reflects, producing the green color of chlorophyll-containing tissues. Chlorophyll molecules are specifically arranged in and around photosystems that are embedded in the thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts. It takes 8-1- photons to bind one molecule of Chlorophyll. Chlorophyll is vital for photosynthesis, which allows plants to absorb energy from light.

Hormone Signaling

Hormones are used to communicate between organs and tissues for physiological regulation and behavioral activities, such as digestion, metabolism, respiration, tissue function, sensory perception, sleep, excretion, lactation, stress, growth and development, movement, reproduction, and mood.[1][2]Hormones affect distant cells by binding to specific receptor proteins in the target cell resulting in a change in cell function. When a hormone binds to the receptor, it results in the activation of a signal transduction pathway. This is known as Hormone signaling.


A group of natural growth promoters (NGPs) or non-antibiotic growth promoters used as feed additives, derived from herbs, spices or other plants. They are commonly regarded as favorable alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs).Essential oils represent a concentrated form of phytogenics, containing mainly the active ingredients of the plants.


A particle of light. Each photon may have a different wavelength., which gives rise to colours e.g. Blue photons have a shorter wavelength than Red photons


A photometric unit of light (Photons)

PAR Photosynthetic Active Range

The range of wavelengths that a plan t can typically absorb (Red and Blue wavelengths)

PPFD Photosynthetic Photon Flux Density

The absorbable amount of photon flux (for the wavelengths that are within PAR only) received a plant

Units of Measurements for Light

As visible to the Human Eye

Foot Candle
1 Lumen/Ft2 at a distance of 1 ft
1 Lumen/M2 at a distance of 1 Meter = 10.76 Foot Candles (10.76 Ft2 = 1 M2)

As Visible to plants (defined as PPFD):

µ mol m-2 s-1
Micromoles per sq meter per second 1 µ mol is 602 quadrillion photons


Range of wavelengths visible to the Human eye [X] nanometers to [Y] nanometers.

Range of wavelength visible to Plants:

XZ nanometers to YZ nanometers
Infra Red
Far Red

LM Lumen Maintenance

Lumen Maintenance is set by Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA)

The number of hours the light can operate before the light output will drop below 80% of the initial light output.
the Number of hours the light can operate before the light output will drop below 70% of the initial light output

Ingress Rating - International Protection Code or IP Code

International Protection Code or IP Code as set by IEC Standard 60529 as set by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC).

Classifies and rates the degree of protection provided against intrusion (body parts such as hands and fingers), dust, accidental contact, and water by mechanical casings and electrical enclosures. The standard aims to provide users more detailed information than vague marketing terms such as waterproof. The digits (characteristic numerals) indicate conformity with the conditions set by the International Electrotechnical Commission(IEC). E.g.: IP56 means Protected from limited dust ingress. Protected from high pressure water jets from any direction.

Rush Current Protection Inrush current or Input surge current or switch-on surge

This refers to the maximum, instantaneous input current drawn by an electrical device when first turned on. Alternating current electric motors and transformers may draw several times their normal full-load current when first energized, for a few cycles of the input waveform. The selection of overcurrent protection devices such as fuses and circuit breakers is made more complicated when high inrush currents must be tolerated. The Rush Current Protection must react quickly to overload or short circuit faults but must not interrupt the circuit when the (usually harmless) inrush current flows.

LED fixtures generate much less heat. Why do we need to worry about the heat transfer, heat sinking and such?

LEDs do not generate much heat however, they are semiconductor based and more sensitive to high temperature.

What happens if we cannot cool led fixtures properly?

Either you get premature failures or significantly shorten life. However, a good designed passive (not cooled by fan) LED fixture is almost indestructible

Can I grow Cannabis with regular Ceres lights?

No! You will get exceptional vegetative grow. However, the bud yield with regular Ceres Lights will be low. Cannabis is a very demanding plant. You are going to need Ceres-CNB which is specifically developed for this industry and it is proven to give very good yields.

What is Ceres-HR?

Ceres HR is a 1:1 replacement for customers comfortable growing under high pressure sodium lights. Ceres-HR radiated in almost identical spectrum. Its energy efficiency is not as high as regular Ceres.

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